If you optimize the performance of the parts, you systematically suboptimize the performance of the whole. Collaboration is a more powerful force than internal competition and the job of leaders is to manage the interactions of the parts, not their actions. Solving one problem at a time doesn’t work when radical transformation is required. The challenge is to dissolve the mess – that is, the system of interrelated problems that are precipitating the crisis.
(Ackoff, 2006, p. xxv)